Spontaneous Pneumothorax in a Dog
A 9-year-old, male, Jack Russell Terrier was presented for acute severe dyspnoea. Initial emergency care, including oxygen supplementation, intravenous uid therapy and preliminary blood and blood gas analysis, was provided. Thoracic radiographs identied a large volume pneumothorax.
Thoracocentesis provided only temporary improvement and a thoracostomy tube was placed, with local analgesia, to facilitate pleural drainage. Despite this, frequent drainage was necessary and large volumes of air were collected on each occasion. CT examination of the thorax was performed, identifying residual pleural air and a localised accumulation of air in the dorsal aspect of the left cranial lung lobe. Left intercostal thoracotomy was performed. There was a large, air-lled bulla on the cranial margin of the cranial portion of the left cranial lung lobe. The bulla lled with inspiration and a defect, approximately 3mm in length was leaking oxygen and ventilated anaesthetic gases. Partial lung lobectomy was performed, the thoracostomy tube was retained and the thorax closed routinely. The dog recovered well and was discharged on the second post-operative day.
Cystic/bullous lung disease includes pulmonary cysts, blebs, bullae and pnaeumatocoeles. Cysts are congenital or acquired and are lined by respiratory epithelium. Blebs are accumulations of air beneath the visceral pleura but outside the pulmonary parenchyma. Bullae result from rupture and coalescence of alveoli secondary to emphysema, inammation, trauma or idiopathic causes. Pneumatocoeles are accumulations of air in other lesions, such as tumours or abscesses. Many cases have more than one lesion, with more than half of cases in one study having bilateral lesions. Pre-operative imaging is particularly valuable as it not only allows a provisional diagnosis but it also directs the surgical approach. Cysts or bullae may be identified on radiographs but radiography is signicantly less sensitive than CT in identifying lesions. In one study, 4 of 17 lesions were identied radiographically, compared with 13/17 using CT.
Patients with spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary cystic or bullous disease rarely respond to conservative management. Surgical excision is generally eective in controlling the leakage of air, but the ultimate prognosis is dependent on controlling of the primary cause. The prognosis with bullous emphysema for example, is guarded to poor, as the bullae are often numerous and continue to develop post-operatively. The prognosis after excision of solitary lesions is generally good, although follow-up thoracic imaging at regular intervals has been recommended to monitor for recurrence.
A number of surgical approaches may be taken to the thorax to excise cysts and bullae. Intercostal thoracotomy is effective for single or localised lesions, but for more extensive or bilateral disease, a median sternotomy may be necessary. Alternatively, thoracoscopy has been reported for partial lung lobectomy to address multiple lesions.
Rehabilitation includes treatments such as applying ice, myotherapy, passive range of motion, weight shifting exercises, encouraging/ activating proprioception, physiotherapy, muscle strengthening exercises and hydrotherapy.
Two frequently asked questions when it comes to extracapsular stabilisation of cruciate disease are 1. What suture material should I use; and 2. What suture configuration should I use and how do I secure the suture.
A large number of surgical techniques have been investigated and advocated for its treatment, but so far, none have been able to replicate laryngeal function and aspiration pneumonia remains a considerable post-operative concern.